Vietnam’s per capita GDP growth since 1990 has been among the fastest in the world. Supported by economic and political reforms launched by Đổi Mới in 1986, the economy grew at an average of 5.5% per year since 1990, and 6.4% per year in the 2000s. Growth has slowed in recent years to around 5.5% due to a severe drought affecting agricultural production and slower industrial growth. Nevertheless, FDI levels remain high, around US$18.5 billion/year, and electricity is now available to almost all households, up from less than half in 1993.
In July 2015, Vietnam implemented a “negative list” approach to foreign investment, meaning that foreign businesses are allowed to operate in all but six prohibited sectors. The country has five types of economic zones, including special economic zones, industrial parks, eco-industrial parks, technology parks, and innovation districts. For more information on these programs, see this excellent 1995 UNIDO report.